Choi, Eun Chang 최은창



I, 최은창 崔恩彰, am a Korean legal scholar and AI policy advisor and my passion lies at the interplay of public policy for emerging technologies, data, and intellectual property law. My recent works examined the legal, policy issues associated with a governance framework for AI systems, ethical design of algorithms, ownership of AI-generated contents, and machine learning. I contributed chapters on bias, risk and accountability of algorithms in government research reports "ICT-based Solutions to Social Problems in Intelligent Information Society". I am a member of 'AI Policy Forum' of the Korean Associaton for AI Law (KAAIL). Recently, I have carried out consultancy works for Korea Communications Commission(KCC) , Korea Information Society Development Institute(KISDI), and Science and Technology Policy Institute(STEPI).

As an editor-in-chief at MIT Technology Review Korea I write articles on AI ethics, data, disinformation and tech policy. Previously, I was a Fellow of the Information Society Project, Yale Law School for which I served as a coordinator of Harvard-Yale-MIT Cyberscholar Working Group, and worked as a Non-Resident Fellow of the Free Internet Project at Illinois Institute of Technology. I also have held an appointment as a Visiting Scholar of Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy, housed in the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, University of Oxford Law Faculty. In addition, I was an Invited Expert of W3C Privacy Interest Group and a Fellow of STEPI, a global think tank in the area of science and technology where I conducted research on regulatory science for public health. From 2018, I have been participating in Law Committee of IEEE Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems, and IEEE Standards Working groups 'Algorithmic Bias Considerations'(P7003)',and 'Data Privacy Process'(P7002) as a qualified Advanced Data Analytics Professional.

My teaching experience includes the UNESCO/UNI-TWIN Program, ITU Centres of Excellence Network,'the Global Information Society and Policy' course at Korea University Graduate School of International Studies , 'the Ethics in Information Systems' at Ewha Womans University Graduate School of Business, 'Media and Politics' at Konkuk University, and 'International Intellectual Property Law' at Myongji University. In 2019, I presented about 'AI Governance' at Asia Pacific Internet Governance Academy(APIGA) organized by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and lectured 'AI: Ethics, Security, Personal Data and Governance' at ITU Centres of Excellence Network for Asia-Pacific Region in Bangkok. Furthermore, I was also invited to discuss on data privacy in smart cities at a workshop 'Data Governance for Smarter City Mobility' organized by Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society (HIIG) in Berlin. On the top of that, I delivered my speech on'IP Address and Cross-border Cooperation for Resolving the Cyber Attribution Challenge'at Asia Pacific Network Information Centre Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

From 2016 I've been serving for Korea Internet Governance Alliance(KIGA) representing South Korea's Internet Community at National Regional Initiatives(NRI) moderated by the IGF Secretariat of United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs , and have been involved in the Best Practice Forum(BPF) IoT-Big Data-AI. At Korea Internet Governance Forum(Kr-IGF), I organized workshops on ethical framework for AI society, cybersecurity policy, and data governance. I have been elected as a member of Multi-stakeholder Steering Group of Asia Pacific Regional IGF . In 2010, with volunteers and public interest lawyers, I have launched the Global Poverty Public Awareness Project(GP3Korea, www.povertyinfo.org) that generates openly accessible knowledge in Korean about issues affecting global poverty (inclusive Internet acess, AI for good, ICT for development, gendger equality, access to medicine, public health) and how open data analytics facilitate sustainable global development. Povertyinfo.org is a peer-to-peer digital media project for humanitarian ends that has been inspired by Access to Knowledge initiative, information commons, and Civic Media at MIT. We strive to lift up the voices of marginalized and underheard groups. The not-for-profit project relies on the power of volunteers and social media in a way to promote social awareness and adopted MediaWiki-based content management, and decentralized participant-driven working method. I received my law degree from Yale Law School, serving as the editor of Yale Journal of Law & Technology, and Yale Journal on Regulation. I also graduated from Seoul National University Graduate School of Law, and hold certificates from Duke-Geneva Institute in Transnational Law at Université de Genève, Switzerland, and from Internet Law Program at Berkman Klein Center Internet & Society, Harvard Law School.

ARTICLES, BOOKS & CHAPTERS
▪ "Who Owns the Baby Shark Dance?: A Copyright Dispute in South Korea" Harvard Technology Review (forthcoming)
"Mass-Collaborative Open-Source Large AI Models Set to Lead AI Democratization" MIT Technology Review (Nov.2022)
▪ "Democratic Control and Contesting of the Power of AI" Issue Brief, Center for Digital Social Science, Yonsei Univ (Nov.2022)
"The Promise and Pitfall of Synthetic Data in Training AI System" MIT Technology Review(Oct.2022)
"Controversy Arises Over Copyright of AI-generated Images from Text" MIT Technology Review (Sept.2022)
▪ Book Chapter,"Technology Risk" in Twenty Key Concepts of Digital Technology and Society , Publisher 社會評論(Sept.2022)
▪ Book Translation Memes in Digital Culture, Publisher MIT Press, Hanul MPlus (July 2022)
"The Ethics of Metaverse and Law: From Sexual Exploitation to Fraud in Virtual Space" Alookso Magazine (July 2022)
"Global COVID-19 Vaccine Equity, Differential Pricing and the Waiver of Patents" BRIC BioWave POSTECH (April 2022)
"Fragmented Media, Delusive Deepfakes, and Hacktivism in Russia-Ukraine War" Alookso Magazine (April 2022)
"How Russia-Ukraine War Accelerates Internet Fragmentation?" MIT Technology Review(March 2022)
"Splinternet: la guerra in Ucraina divide l’internet" Democrazia Futura , Rome in Italian (March 2022)
"Disinformation War in Ukraine-Russia Crisis"MIT Technology Review(March 2022)
"Does Facebook’s Free Basics Help Internet Connectivity in Low-income Countries?" MIT Technology Review(Feb.2022)
"Can Computer Algorithms Learn about the Ethics of Warfare?" MIT Technology Review(Feb.2022)
"NFT Craze:How Dazzling is it and also Risky?" MIT Technology Review(Dec.2021)
"Who's Building Metaverse Platforms and How Metaverse World to be Governed? " MIT Technology Review (Nov.2021)
"CRISPR-Cas9 Patent War and the Implication for Microbial Sciences" BRIC BioWave Vol.23, No.9, POSTECH(Sept.2021)
▪ "The Race for Hyperscale AI Language Models" Monthly Magazine SK Planet (Sept.2021)
" Algorithmic Antagonisms of Gig Workers and Regulations on Food-Delivery Platforms" MIT Technology Review (Aug.2021)
"Will the CDA Section 230 Reform Reduce Dis/Misinformation in Digital Platforms?" MIT Technology Review(May 2021)
"Why Data Ethics Matters to AI Business?" MIT Technology Review(April 2021)
"Why AI Chatbots Fail?:The Ethics of Lee Luda's Discriminatory Remarks" I, II MIT Technology Review(March 2021)
"The History of Chatbots and Tech Policy: Rethinking Eliza, GPT-3, & Lee Luda" AI Outlook Vol.4 KISDI (April 2021)
▪ Book Chapter "The Difference in AI Risk Perception and Modes of AI Governance" in Ethics and Governance of AI , 博英社(Jan.2021)
The Archaeology of Disinformation: How Fake News/Propaganda Manipulated Public Opinion from Ancient Rome to Social Media , Publisher 東亞細亞(2020). (Acclaims : PD Journal , Yes 24, SBS Radio , Magazine Chaeg(冊), Digital Times, Maeil Business News, Asia Economy, Dong-a Ilbo, Seoul Shinmun, Joennam Ilbo, Jeonbuk Ilbo, Segya Ilbo, Kyosu Shinmun , Kyoungnam News, Seoul Economic Daily, Ulsan Jeil, Hankook Ilbo 1 , Hankook Ilbo 2 , Kwangju Ilbo, Univ Press , Financial News, News 1, Naeil News, Hellmouth )
"Personal Data Class Actions in European Courts", ZDNet Korea(Dec.1, 2020)
"The Truth of the Long History of Fake News and Falsehoods" Biweekly 企劃會議 Vol.518 (Aug.2020)
▪ Book Chapter "How to Fill the AI Accountability Gap" in Artificial Intelligence and Power Shift, Publisher Samin(三仁) (2018)
"California's Regulation on Flavored Tobacco Products:Menthol", Korea Health Promotion Institute (2018)
"Algorithm Governance" Future Horizon + 2017 Summer Vol.33, Science and Technology Policy Institute (2017)
▪ Book Translation The Internet of Things, Publisher MIT Press(2015), Hanul MPlus(2017)
▪ Co-authored "Factors Associated with Use of Menthol Cigarettes among University Students and Male Workers" Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (July 2016)
▪ Book Chapter "How to Hold AI Robots Accountable?"in How to Build a Better Future: AI, the Fourth Industrial Revolution and Future of Humanity by Science & Technology Policy Institute(STEPI), Publisher RH Korea(2016)
▪ Co-authored Book Digital Copyright and Technology Terminology , The Korea Copyright Commission (2016)
"Legal and Ethical Controversies of AI" Future Horizon + 2016 Spring Vol.28, Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI)
▪ Book Published The Layered Model of Internet Regulation, Publisher Communication Books (2015)
▪ Book Translation The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom written by Prof. Yochai Benkler Yale University Press (2005), Communication Books Korea(2015) (Acclaims: Hankuk Economy , Hankook Ilbo , Slow News 1 , Slow News 2, Bloter , Veritas , Media Today, Digital Today , Opinion News, JinboNet, OhmyNews)
The Wealth of Networks:How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (Book Excerpts in Korean)
▪ "The U.S. Supreme Court's Ruling on BRCA1/BRCA2 Gene Patent:Bioethical and Legal Implication" Korea National Institute for Bioethics Policy (2014). Elected as the author of commissioned research paper through competition
▪"Regulatory Science for Public Health and Safety: Lessons from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Approaches",STEPI Fellowship Research Paper Series, Science & Technology Policy Institute of Korea (2014)

CONFERENCES, TALKS, PRESENTATIONS
▪ "The Role of Data in Implementing Sustainable Development",Symposium, John Kotelawala Defence University, Sri Lanka (Jan.2023)
▪ "Applying Artificial Intelligence for Social Good and Economic Impacts", Reshaping the Global Landscape Conference, Southville International School, Manila, Philippines (Oct. 27, 2022)
▪"The Incentives of Disinformation in Media Ecosystem" Overseas Korean Journalists Association, Seoul, S.Korea(Oct.2022)
▪ Discussant, Global Digital Compact for Corporate Sustainability, organized by UN IGF + APrIGF, Singapore (Sept.2022)
▪ "AI for Public Good and Socio-economic Impacts", "Why is Open Data Vital for UN Sustainable Development Goals" at Next Generation Entrepreneurship Training, UNESCO UNI-TWIN Program+ Handong Global University, S.Korea (Aug.2022)
▪ "The Ethics of AI-Powered Voice Chatbots and Virtual Reality for Digital Afterlives" and "The Global Treands and Issues of Robot Ethics" International Conference on Robot Ethics and Standards(ICRES) COEX, Seoul, S.Korea (July.2022)
▪ "Metaverse as the Public Sphere and Its Role in Democracy: Platform Architecture, Data Privacy and Abuse" The Korean Society for Artificial Intelligence Ethics & The 21th Century Political Science Association , Busan, S.Korea (May.2022)
▪ "AI-Generated Virtual Reality in the Metaverse and Sexual Abuse" Intelligent Information System Conference S.Korea (May.2022)
▪ "Social Interactions in Virtual Metaverse and Human Rights", National Human Rights Commission of Korea , S.Korea (Feb.2022)
'Who Holds Ownership of AI-generated Content and Invention?', AI Summit Seoul, S.Korea (Dec.2021)
'Why AI Literacy is Critical for Algorithmic Governance?', Indian Youth Internet Governance Forum(Dec.2021)
'NFTying Memes, Digital Arts Trading and Copyright Theft' Korean Cybercomm Academic Society (Nov.2021)
▪ 'Business Insight: The Risk and Ethics of Artificial Intelligence' Korea Management Association (Nov.2021)
▪ 'Data Sharing and Data Privacy:The Limit of Differential Privacy' Tutorial, Korea Internet Governance Forum (KrIGF)(Aug.2021)
▪ 'Risk Constructivism and Cultural Cognition', The Evolution of Technology & Society Conference , SNU + KISA (June.2021)
▪ 'The Peril of Politicizing Science and Vaccine Hesitancy', Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei Univ(June.2021)
▪ 'The Role of Experts Witness in Toxic Tort Ligitation" Korean Society for Research on Nicotine (May.2021)
'Ethical AI: A New Corporate Social Responsibility', AI Summit Seoul, S. Korea (Dec.2020)
'Blockchain in Media Value Chain and Copyrights Management', Korean Cybercomm Academic Society (Nov.2020)
▪ 'Technology Risks and Scientific Uncertainty' at Technology & Society Forum , Seoul National University (Sept.2020)
'Global Landscape of AI Ethics Principles: Soft Law or Hard Law?', Korea Internet Governance Forum (Aug.2020)
▪ 'South Korea's Contacts Tracing for COVID-19: Balancing between Public Health and Privacy', Slides , Video (Aug.2020)
'Business Ethics for Ethical AI: The Function of AI Ethics Board' Korea Academy of Business Ethics Conference (Aug.2020)
▪ 'Medical Misinformation and Scientific Uncertainty: COVID-19, Ebola & HIV/AIDS',Korea Society of Internet Ethics Conference
'Internet Memes Warfare: Political Campaign, Commercials and Copyrights'Korean Cybercomm Academic Society (June 2020)
▪ 'How Misinformation Obstruct Public Health Measures during Pandemics', School of Public Health, Yonsei Univ (March. 2020)
'The Risk Perception of AI', Korean Association for AI & Law (KAAIL) AI Policy Forum + Microsoft Korea (Oct.2019)
"The Making of South Korea's Robot Ethics Charter", International Conference on Robot Ethics and Standards, London, UK (2019)
'Data Governance for Smarter City Mobility' The United Nations Internet Governance Forum, Berlin, Germany (2019)
'National Collaborative Session on Cybersecurity', The United Nations Internet Governance Forum, Berlin, Germany (2019)
'Build Concept on AI Society for Good: Quest for Inclusion', 2019 Asia-Pacific Internet Governance Forum, Vladivostok, Russia
'Coping with Misinformation in an Deluge of Information', 2019 Asia-Pacific Internet Governance Forum, Vladivostok, Russia
▪ 'AI Governance'in TECH & TALK Conference, Korea Policy Center for 4th Industrial Revolution (KPC4IR), KAIST, Seoul (May. 2019)
'AI Ethics & Governance: Multistakeholder Approach', 2019 Korea Internet Governance Forum, Seoul, South Korea
▪ 'Global Perspective on AI Ethics Governance' Korea Information Society Development Institute (KISDI), South Korea (Sept.2018)
▪ 'AI Ethics, Policies & Governance: A Global Overview' The Korea Society of Internet Ethics Conference (Nov.2018)
▪ 'Artificial Intelligence Applications for Global Public Health' National Medical Center(NMC), Seoul, South Korea (Oct. 2018)
'Will You Trust Artificial Intelligence's Decision?' AI Lecture Series, Institution for Digital Human Rights, Seoul. S.Korea (Dec.2017)
'Can Blockchain Technology Help the Unbanked around the World?: Financial Inclusion' Povertyinfo.org's blog (Oct.2017)
▪'National Cyber Security in The Age of Internet of Things' Institute of International Studies, Seoul National University (Jan.2017)
▪'Analysis on the Stanford AI 100 Report' Technology & Society Forum, Seoul National University (Nov. 2016)
'Net Neuteality in the new ICT Ecosystem :Zero-rating' OpenNet Korea, Seoul (2015)

PUBLIC POLICY ENGAGEMENT & ACTIVITIES
▪ Panelist, Global Governance and Diplomacy Workshop, KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Hilton Seoul (Nov.2022)
▪ "Analysis on the FCC Order: Indoor Location Accuracy of Wireless 911 Calls in the U.S." Korea National Police Agency(May.2022)
▪ "Social Interactions in Virtual Metaverse and Human Rights", National Human Rights Commission of Korea (Feb. 2022)
'The Rise of Political Deepfakes and Democracy' Media & ICT Committee, National Assembly of Korea (Jan.2022)
▪ Co-authored "Governing Artificial Intelligence: Issues, Principles, and Practices" The AI Governance Forum Korea (Jan.2022)
▪ Panelist,'Myanmar's Internet Suppression and Democracy after Military Coup' Korea Internet Governance Forum (Aug.2021)
Mentoring for Fellows, Asia Pacific Regional Internet Governance Forum + APSIG (2022 Singapore, 2021 Nepal)
'Fear and Misinformation in the Cultural History of Epidemics', Citizen University, Seoul Metropolitan Government (Aug.2021)
▪ Invited Author Talk 'Disinformation, Lies and Political Propaganda on Social Media' at the Factcheck Week, organized by Community Media Foundation and the Korea Communications Commission (KCC)(April. 2021)
▪ Panelist, Asian Pacific Table-top Exercise on the Human Element in Autonomous Weapon Systems, UNDIR (Feb.2021)
▪ Advised for the Ethical Framework for Designing Home Healthcare AI Robotics, Seoul National University of Education (April, 2021)
'The Role of the Internet in Emergency Situations', The United Nations Internet Governance Forum (Nov.2020)
'Blockchain for Humanity and Development Agenda',Development Cooperation Forum of KOICA , Video (Oct.2020)
▪ Consultated about Infodemic Scenarios of Disasters for the National Disaster Management Research Institute (May.2020)
▪ Advised Korea Communications Commission(KCC) about regulation of deepfakes(Nov.2019)
'Autonomous Systems, Robustness and Data' Interview with United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (Nov.2020)
▪ Consulted about Global Perspective on AI Ethics for Korea Information Society Development Institute (Sept.2019)
'AI: Ethics, Security, Personal Data and Governance' ITU Academy, Centres of Excellence, Bangkok, Thailand (Sept.2019)
▪ 'AI –Country Case:Republic of Korea', ITU Academy, Centres of Excellence, Bangkok, Thailand (Sept.2019)
'IP Address and Cross-border Cooperation for Resolving the Cyber Attribution Challenges', APNIC 48,Chiang Mai,Thailand (2019)
▪ Plenary Session Panelist, Asia-Pacific Internet Governance Forum (APrIGF), Vladivostok, Russia (July, 2019)
▪ Policy Report "The Ethical Considerations of AI and Policy Response in the Age of Fourth Industrial Revolution" KISDI, Commissioned Report submitted to The Presidential Committee on the Fourth Industrial Revolution of Korea (Oct.2018)
'Fake News Workshop', The UN Internet Governance Forum at Maison de l'UNESCO, Paris, France(Nov.2018)
▪ Co-authored Policy Report "A Study on the Regulation of Tobacco Additives and Disclosure of Tobacco Ingredients:Comparative Approach between Brazil, Australia, EU, and U.S.FDA" Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea(Dec.2018)
▪ Policy Report "The WTO’s Decision on Australia’s Plain Packaging Tobacco Measures for Public Health: Trademark Restrictions", commissioned research by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, South Korea (Sept.2018)
▪ Business trip to U.S. FDA and UCSF Tobacco Research Center with officials of Ministry of Health and Welfare (Aug. 2018)
▪ Co-authored a Policy Report "ICT-based Solutions to Social Problems in Intelligent Information Society" KISDI (2017)
▪ Member, the Expert Council of Robot Ethics at Korea Institute for Robot Industry Advancement
▪ Member, The Technical Committee on Robot Ethics in IEEE Robotcs & Automation Society
▪ Multi-Stakeholder Steering Group(MSG), Asia Pacific Regional Internet Governance Forum(APrIGF)

IN THE NEWS & INTERVIEWS
▪ Expert Interview "Who Governs Global Internet?" Science Donga Magazine Vol.444(Dec.2022)
▪ "The Role of Journalism in Tackling Coronavirus Disinformation" Yonhap News , Miju News, Atlanta-K News (Oct.2022)
'Rounding up Korean candidates for Innovators under 35 by MIT Technology Review', Maeil Business News (Oct.2022)
▪ Interview "Privacy and the Right of Publicity in Social Media", TBS eFM Seoul Media Foundation (Oct.2022)
▪ Interview "FCC Regulations for Accurate Location Tracking of Wireless 911 Callers in Emergency " E-Daily (Aug.2022)
▪ Invited discussion "Machine Consciousness in Large-scale Language Models and Ethics" Alookso Magazine(Aug 2022)
'Emerging Markets and Technologies of Service Robots' Tech Live Talk, MIT Technology Review (May 2022)
Dalla 'Cortina di ferro' alle 'Cortine di silicio' Democrazia Futura , Italian (April 2022)
'The Future of Metaverse, Metamobility and Ethics' Motersline, Hyundai Motors(April 2022)
'Political Manipulation and Deepfakes with NFTs' Media Today, New1, E-Daily News , Break News(Jan.2022)
'The History of Fake News, Rumors and Epidemic' Asia Economy News(Aug.2021)
'The Age of Disinformation and Misinformation' Danbi News, KCC, Tech News World(April 2021)
'AI Policy report released by AI Governance Forum at National Assembly of Korea', AI Times (Nov.2020)
'COVID 19 Contact Tracing, Legality, and Privacy Risk in S.Korea', Interviewed with Sciences Po, Le Havre, France(Nov.2020)
'AI Governance Forum pose to discuess AI policy suggestion', AI Times (Nov. 2020)
'Blockchain for Anti-Corruption and Financial Inclusion for the Unbanked' Maeil Business News (Oct. 2020)
'COVID-19 Contact Tracing and Data Retention' MediaUs (Sept.2020)
'South Korea's Scope of Contact Tracing for COVID-19 and Social Stigma' Media Today (Aug.2020)
'Will Algorithms Make Safe Decisions in Foreign Affairs?' AI Lab, DiploFoundation, Geneva, Switzerland (Dec.2019)
'Fake News Session', 2018 Internet Governance Forum report, Geneva Internet Platform (Nov.2018)
'AI becomes smarter…Is it a simple machine or artificial person?', Dong-a Ilbo (Feb.2017)
'Blockchain Platform, Hacking, and Security' Boan Cybersecurity News (Sept.2017)
'Blockchain Paradigm:Information Security and Governance' ZDNet Korea (Sept.2017)
'The Economics of Zero-rating: Why Free Mobile Data Matters?', Startup Alliance, Seoul (Aug.2015)

ACADEMIC INTERESTS
Intersection of Law, Technology & Science; Law and Political Economy
AI & Copyright Law, Disinformation, The Power of Platform, Internet Memes, Hashtag Activism
Law for Algorithms, Business Ethics of AI, Governing AI, Accountability for Algorithms
Technology Policy for Public Purpose; Mass Collaboration Open Data, Data Sharing, Data Ownership
Patenting Nature; CRISPR Patents; Genomic Data Commons
Pharmaceutical Patents and Global Health Inequality: Vaccine Equity
The Economic History of Intellectual Property and Technology
Blockchain-based Governance, Metaverse, Non-Fungible Tokens(NFT)

CONTACT
eunchang.choi@aya.yale.edu ; eunchang.choi@technologyreview.kr